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ASSYRIA (1491-606 BC)

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the late 25th or early–24th century BC to 608 BC[1] centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia (present day northern Iraq), that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur (Akkadian: ������ �� Aššūrāyu; Aramaic: אתור Aṯur; Hebrew: אַשּׁוּר Aššûr; Arabic: آشور Āšūr). Assyria was also sometimes known as Subartu, and after its fall, from 605 BC through to the late seventh century AD variously as Athura, Syria (Greek), Assyria (Latin) and Assuristan. The term Assyria can also refer to the geographic region or heartland where Assyria, its empires and the Assyrian people were centred. The modern Assyrian Christian minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, south east Turkey and north west Iran are the descendants of the ancient Assyrians (see Assyrian continuity).[2][3]

Assyria evolved originally as a minor Akkadian kingdom. From the late 24th Century BC Assyrian kings would certainly have been regional leaders only, and subject to Sargon of Akkad who united all the Akkadian speaking peoples of Mesopotamia under the Akkadian Empire which lasted from 2334 BC to 2154 BC. After the fall of the Akkadian Empire circa 2154 BC,[4] and the succeeding Sumerian 3rd Dynasty of Ur, Mesopotamia eventually coalesced into just two separate nations; Assyria in the north, and some century and a half later, Babylonia in the south.

In the Old Assyrian period of the Early Bronze Age, Assyria had been a kingdom of northern Mesopotamia (modern-day northern Iraq), initially competing with their fellow Sumero-Akkadian states in southern Mesopotamia for dominance of the region, and also with the Hurrians to the north in Asia Minor, the Gutians to the east in the Zagros Mountains and the Eblaites and later Amorites in The Levant to the west. During the 20th century BC, it established colonies in Asia Minor, and under king Ilushuma, it asserted itself over southern Mesopotamia also. From the late 19th century BC Assyria came into conflict with the newly created state of Babylonia which eventually eclipsed the older Sumero-Akkadian states in the south. Assyria experienced fluctuating fortunes in the Middle Assyrian period. Assyria had a period of empire under Shamshi-Adad I and Ishme-Dagan in the 19th and 18th centuries BC, following this it found itself under short periods of Babylonian and Mitanni-Hurrian domination in the 18th and 15th centuries BC respectively, and another period of great power and empire from 1365 BC to 1076 BC, that included the reigns of great kings such as Ashur-uballit I, Arik-den-ili, Tukulti-Ninurta I and Tiglath-Pileser I. Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirari II from 911 BC[5], it again became a great power over the next 3 centuries, overthrowing the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt and conquering Egypt,[1] Babylonia, Elam, Urartu/Armenia, Media, Persia, Mannea, Gutium, Phoenicia/Canaan, Aramea (Syria), Arabia, Israel, Judah, Edom, Moab, Samarra, Cilicia, Cyprus, Chaldea, Nabatea, Commagene, Dilmun and the Hurrians, Sutu and Neo-Hittites, driving the Ethiopians and Nubians from Egypt,[1] defeating the Cimmerians and Scythians and exacting tribute from Phrygia, Magan and Punt among others[6]. After its fall, (between 612 BC and 605 BC), Assyria remained a province and Geo-political entity under the Babylonian, Median, Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman and Sassanid empires until the Arab Islamic invasion and conquest of Mesopotamia in the mid 7th century AD, when it was finally dissolved.[7]

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Contents

1 Early history

1.1 Classical dating

2 Old Assyrian period

2.1 Assyrian Empire of Shamshi-Adad I

2.2 Assyria under Babylonian domination

2.3 Assyrian dynasty restored

2.4 Assyria under Mitanni domination

3 Middle Assyrian period — Assyrian resurgence

3.1 Assyrian expansion and empire 1390 - 1076 BC

3.2 Assyria in the Ancient Dark Ages, 1075-912 BC

3.3 Society in the Middle Assyrian period

4 Neo-Assyrian Empire

4.1 Expansion, 911-627 BC

4.2 Downfall, 627-605 BC

5 Assyria after the empire

5.1 Athura, Assuristan, Assyria province

5.2 Germany and West Africa theories

6 Language

7 Arts and sciences

8 Legacy and rediscovery

9 See also

10 Notes and references

11 Literature

12 External links

original source

History of Iraq
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This article is part of a series
Ancient Iraq
Sumer
Akkadian Empire
Babylonia
Assyria
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
Classical Iraq
Achaemenid Assyria
Seleucid Babylonia
Parthian Babylonia
Sassanid Asuristan
Medieval Iraq
Abbasid Caliphate
Ottoman Iraq
Mamluk Iraq
Modern Iraq
British Mandate
Kingdom of Iraq
Republic of Iraq
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