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World War I {WWI or WW1} (Wikipedia)

UNDER CONSTRUCTION
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

World War I (WWI), which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and theFirst World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.

It involved all the world's great powers, [5] which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United KingdomFrance and Russia) and the Central Powers (originally centred around the Triple Alliance of GermanyAustria-Hungary and Italy; but, as Austria–Hungary had taken the offensive against the agreement, Italy did not enter into the war). [6] 

These alliances both reorganised (Italy fought for the Allies), and expanded as more nations entered the war. Ultimately more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. [7] [8] 

More than 9 million combatants were killed, largely because of great technological advances in firepower without corresponding advances in mobility. It was the sixth - deadliest conflict in world history, subsequently paving the way for various political changes such as revolutions in the nations involved. [9]

Long-term causes of the war included the imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe, including the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, the French Republic, and Italy.

The assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by a Yugoslav nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina was the proximate trigger of the war.

It resulted in a Habsburg ultimatum against the Kingdom of Serbia. [10] [11] Several alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; via their colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world.

On 28 July, the conflict opened with the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia, [12] [13] followed by the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France; and a Russian attack against Germany.

After the German march on Paris was brought to a halt, the Western Front settled into a static battle of attrition with a trench line that changed little until 1917. In the East, the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back by the German army.

Additional fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire joined the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915 and Romania in 1916. The Russian Empire collapsed in March 1917, and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year.

After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, United States forces entered the trenches and the Allies drove back the German armies in a series of successful offensives. Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries at this point, agreed to a cease-fire on 11 November 1918, later known as Armistice Day.

 

World War I
WW1 TitlePicture For Wikipedia Article.jpg
Clockwise from top: trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark IV Tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistiblesinking after striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; aVickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III biplanes
Date 28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918 (Armistice)

Treaty of Versailles signed 28 June 1919

Location Europe, Africa, the Middle East, the Pacific Islands, China and off the coast of South and North America
Result Allied victory
Belligerents
Allied (Entente) Powers

France French Third Republic
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland British Empire
 Russia (1914–17)
 Italy (1915–18)
 United States (1917–18)
 Romania (1916–18)
Empire of Japan Empire of Japan
Kingdom of Serbia Kingdom of Serbia
 Belgium
 Greece (1917–18)
and others

Central Powers

German Empire German Empire
 Austria-Hungary
 Ottoman Empire
 Bulgaria (1915–18)

Commanders and leaders
Leaders and commanders

France Raymond Poincaré
France Georges Clemenceau
France Ferdinand Foch
British Empire H. H. Asquith
British Empire David Lloyd George
British Empire Douglas Haig
Russian Empire Nicholas II
Russian Empire Nicholas Nikolaevich
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) Antonio Salandra
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) Vittorio Orlando
Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) Luigi Cadorna
United States Woodrow Wilson
United States John J. Pershing
Romania Ferdinand I
and others

Leaders and commanders

German Empire Wilhelm II
German Empire Paul von Hindenburg
German Empire Erich Ludendorff
Austria-Hungary Franz Joseph I
Austria-Hungary Karl I
Austria-Hungary Conrad von Hötzendorf
Ottoman Empire Mehmed V
Ottoman Empire Enver Pasha
Ottoman Empire Mustafa Kemal
Kingdom of Bulgaria Ferdinand I
Kingdom of Bulgaria Nikola Zhekov
and others

Strength
Entente[1]

Russian Empire 12,000,000

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 8,841,541[2][3]

France 8,660,000[4]

Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) 5,093,140

United States 4,743,826

Kingdom of Romania 1,234,000

Empire of Japan 800,000

Kingdom of Serbia 707,343

Belgium 380,000

Kingdom of Greece 250,000

Total: 42,959,850

Central Powers[1]

German Empire 13,250,000

Austria-Hungary 7,800,000

Ottoman Empire 2,998,321

Kingdom of Bulgaria 1,200,000

Total: 25,248,321

Casualties and losses
Military dead:
5,525,000
Military wounded:
12,831,500
Military missing:
4,121,000
Total:
22,477,500 KIA, WIA or MIA...further details.
Military dead:
4,386,000
Military wounded:
8,388,000
Military missing:
3,629,000
Total:
16,403,000 KIA, WIA or MIA...further details.

The war had ended in victory for the Allies.

Events on the home fronts were as tumultuous as on the battle fronts, as the participants tried to mobilize their manpower and economic resources to fight a total war. By the end of the war, four major imperial powers —the GermanRussianAustro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires— ceased to exist.

The successor states of the former two lost a great amount of territory, while the latter two were dismantled entirely. The map of central Europe was redrawn into several smaller states. [14] 

The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war and the breakup of empires, the repercussions of Germany's defeat and problems with the Treaty of Versailles are generally agreed to be factors contributing to World War II. [15]

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