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The Gospel of - MARK

The Historical Books of the New Testament
@ bible.org by J. Hampton Keathley, III {original source}

AUTHOR AND TITLE:

Mark’s Gospel is actually anonymous since it does not name its author. The Greek title, Kata Markon, “According to Mark” was added later by a scribe sometime before A.D. 125, but there is strong and clear evidence (external and internal) that Mark was its author. “The unanimous testimony of the early church fathers is that Mark, an associate of the apostle Peter, was the author.”fn15 

In A.D. 112, Papiasdb01 cited Markdb02 as “the interpreter of Peter.” Dunnettdb03 points out, “A comparison of Peter’s sermon in Acts 10:36-43 with Mark’s Gospel shows the former to be an outline of the life of Jesus which Mark has given in much greater detail.”fn16

Though Mark was not one of the original disciples of Christ, he was the son of Mary, a woman of wealth and position in Jerusalem (Acts 12:12), a companion of Peterdb04 (1 Pet. 5:13), and the cousin of Barnabasdb05 (Col. 4:10). These associations, especially his association with Peter who was evidently Mark’s source of information, gave apostolic authority to Mark’s Gospel. Since Peter spoke of him as “Mark, my son,” (1 Pet. 5:13), Peter may have been the one who led Mark to Christ.

In addition, he was also a close associate of Pauldb06. Ryrie writesdb07:

He had the rare privilege of accompanying Paul and Barnabas on the first missionary journey but failed to stay with them through the entire trip. Because of this, Paul refused to take him on the second journey, so he went with Barnabas to Cyprus (Acts 15:38-40). About a dozen years later he was again with Paul (Col. 4:10; Philem. 24), and just before Paul’s execution he was sent for by the apostle (2 Tim. 4:11). His biography proves that one failure in life does not mean the end of usefulness.fn17

DATE: A.D. 50S OR 60S

The dating of Mark is somewhat difficult, though many scholars believe this Gospel was the first of the four Gospels. Unless one rejects the element of predictive prophecy, 13:2 clearly shows that Mark was written before A.D. 70 and the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem. Ryrie points out:

In fact, if Acts must be dated about A.D. 61, and if Luke, the companion volume, preceded it, then Mark must be even earlier, since Luke apparently used Mark in writing his gospel. This points to a date in the 50s for Mark. However, many scholars believe that Mark was not written until after Peter died; i.e., after 67 but before 70.fn18

THEME AND PURPOSE:

The theme of Mark is

  • Christ the Servant.

This thrust is brought in 10:45, “For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and give His life a ransom for many.” A careful reading of Mark shows how the two themes of this verse, service and sacrifice, are unfolded by Mark. Mark is addressed primarily to the Roman or Gentile reader.

As a result, the genealogy of Jesus is omitted along with the Sermon on the Mount and the condemnations by the religious leaders receive less attention. Also, since Mark presents Jesus as the Worker, the Servant of the Lord, the book focuses on the activity of Christ as a faithful Servant effectively going about His work.

This focus seems evident by Mark’s style as seen in his use of the Greek euqus, “immediately, at once,” or “then, so then,” which occurs some 42 times in this Gospel. Its meaning varies from the sense of immediacy as in 1:10, to that of logical order (“in due course, then”; cf. 1:21 [“when”]; 11:3 [“shortly”]).fn19 Another illustration of this active focus is Mark’s prominent use of the historic present to describe a past event, which was evidently done for vividness.

KEY WORD:

Servant, Servant of the Lord.

KEY VERSES:

8:34-37. Then Jesus called the crowd with his disciples and said to them, “If anyone wants to come after me, he must deny himself and take up his cross and follow me. For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for me and the gospel will save it. What advantage is it for someone to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his soul? What can a person give in exchange for his soul?”

10:43-45“But it is not this way among you. But whoever wants to be great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first among you must be the slave of all. For even the Son of Man did not come to be served but to serve, and to give his life a ransom for many.”

KEY CHAPTERS:

Chapter 8 
forms a key chapter in Mark, much like chapter 12 in Matthew, because here there is a change in both the content and course of the ministry of Jesus.

  • The pivotal event that brings about the change is the confession of Peter, “You are the Christ (the Messiah)” (8:29).

This is followed immediately by a warning that they should tell no one, the revelation of His death, the call to discipleship, and the transfiguration.

That faith-inspired response triggers a new phase in both the content and the course of Jesus’ ministry. Until this point He has sought to validate His claims as Messiah. But now He begins to fortify His men for His forthcoming suffering and death at the hands of the religious leaders.

Jesus’ steps begin to take Him daily closer to Jerusalemthe place where the Perfect Servant will demonstrate the full extent of His servanthood.fn20

CHRIST AS SEEN IN MARK:

Of course, Mark’s contribution especially centers on presenting the Savior as the Sacrificing Servant who gives His life obediently for the ransom of many. The focus is clearly on His ministry to the physical and spiritual needs of others always putting them before His own needs. This emphasis on the Savior’s servant activity is seen in the following:

Only eighteen out of Christ’s seventy parables are found in Mark—some of these are only one sentence in length—but he lists over half of Christ’s thirty-five miracles, the highest proportion in the Gospels.fn21

OUTLINE:

With the theme of the book being that of Christ the Servant. The key verse, 10:45, provides the key for two natural divisions of the Gospel:

We can divide this into five simple sections:

  • I. The Preparation of the Servant for Service (1:1-13)

  • II. The Preaching of the Servant in Galilee (1:14-9:50)

  • III. The Preaching of the Servant in Perea (10:1-52)

  • IV. The Passion of the Servant in Jerusalem (11:1-15:47)

  • V. The Prosperity of the Servant in Resurrection (16:1-20)
Matthew
Luke
Footnotes
15 John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck, editors, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, Victor Books, Wheaton, 1983,1985, electronic media.
16 Walter M. Dunnett, Professor of New Testament, Moody Bible Institute, New Testament Survey, Evangelical Teacher Training Association, Wheaton, 1967, p. 17.
17 Ryrie, p. 1574.
18 Ryrie, p. 1574.
19 Walvoord/Zuck, electronic media.
20 Wilkinson/Boa, p. 320.
21 Wilkinson/Boa, p. 321.
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Key
db* = Content added by Dailybread.com.au to assist the reader
db01 Papias: Papias (Greek: Παπίας) was an Apostolic Father, Bishop of Hierapolis (modern Pamukkale, Turkey), and author (c. 100) of the Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord (Greek: Λογίων Κυριακῶν Ἐξήγησις) in five books. Very little is known of Papias apart from what can be inferred from his own writings. He is described as "an ancient man who was a hearer of John and a companion of Polycarp" by Polycarp's disciple Irenaeus (c. 180). [From Wikipedia]
db02 Mark: Mark the Evangelist (Latin: Mārcus; Greek: Μᾶρκος; Coptic: Μαρκοϲ; Hebrew: מרקוס‎) is the purported traditional author of the Gospel of Mark. One of the Seventy Disciples, Mark founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the original three main episcopal sees of Christianity. [From Wikipedia]
db03 Dunnett: Walter Dunnett serves as Assistant Rector at St. Mark’s. Born in Tayport, Scotland, Fr. Dunnett recevied his B.A., M.A., M.Div. from Wheaton College, S.T.M. from Luther Northwestern Seminary, D.W.S. from the Institute for Worship Studies and his Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University. Fr. Dunnett served as a college professor in Bible and New Testament Greek for 40 years. [stmarksglenellyn.org]
db04 Peter: Saint Peter (Latin: Petrus, Greek: Πέτρος Petros, Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa ; died c. 64 AD) , also known as Simon Peter, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church. The New Testament indicates that Peter was the son of John (or Jonah or Jona) and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. [From Wikipedia]
db05 Barnabas: was a Cypriot Jew, he and Paul the Apostle undertook missionary journeys together and defended Gentile converts against the Judaizers. [From Wikipedia]
db06 Paul: Paul the Apostle (Greek: Παῦλος Paulos; c. 5 – c. 67), original name Saul of Tarsus (Greek: Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς Saulos Tarseus), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world. He is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age. [From Wikipedia]
db07 Ryrie: Charles Caldwell Ryrie (born March 2, 1925) is a Christian writer and theologian who served as professor of systematic theology and dean of doctoral studies at Dallas Theological Seminary and as president and professor at what is now Cairn University. He is the editor of The Ryrie Study Bible by Moody Publishers, containing more than 10,000 of Dr. Ryrie's explanatory notes. First published in 1978, it has sold more than 2 million copies.[1] He is a notable advocate of premillennial dispensationalism. [From Wikipedia]
     
 
 
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